Revista de Drept Public, Nr. 2/2007

Revista de Drept Public, Nr. 2/2007 - Paul Stewart, Chriss Riddell
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Prof.univ.dr. Victor Duculescu
Universitatea Hyperion, Bucuresti

Le ?revirement? du Trait? Constitutionnel est-il possible apres la r?union de Berlin du Conseil Europ?en?

L?expos? pr?sente les divers solutionnes envisag?es dans des milieux juridiques et politiques apres le rejet du Trait? Constitutionnel par la France et les Pays-Bas. Vu les r?serves s?rieuses manifest?s a Berlin par des importants pays qui n?acceptent pas la ? ressuscitation ? du trait? comme tel il semble probable que le trait? sera finalement ren?goci?. Une autre solution acceptable serrait ? le d?coupage ? des chapitres ou des provisions contest?s qui pourront etre diff?r?s a une Conf?rence ult?rieure.

Prof.univ.dr. Verginia Vedinas
Universitatea Bucuresti
Prep.univ. Stefania-Cristina Mirica
Universitatea Dunarea de Jos, Galati

The legal status of the right of association regarding the teritorial districts as they result from the legislative changes of the Law number 215 from 2001 by the Law number 286 from 2006

This article analyses the modifications brought to the Law Regarding the Local Public Administration- Law number 215 from 2001. It was modified by the Law number 286 from 2006, which settles the right of association for the administrative- territorial districts.

The article is structured on three sections. The first section contains general aspects regarding the right of association: its fundamental importance, the constitutional recognition, the limits in which this right can be exercised. We have also specified other relevant documents which settles the specific ways of the association between physique persons and juridical persons.In Section II there are taken into consideration the effects of the Law number 215 from 2001- how does this law settle the right of association. It is emphasized the fact that it was very important to modify and complete this law, especially in the matter of the right of association for the administrative- territorial districts. In the initial form of this law only general stipulations were specified, but the specific way of exercising the association right at a local, national or even international level was not indicated. The legislator had only acknowledged the association right for the local public administration authorities, without making any further specifications. Further on, the article brings into the light the meanings of the new terms introduced.

At this point we have clarified the meaning of the intercomunitary development associations. These are co-operation structures with legal private law personality. Following the legal stipulations, they are established by the administrative- territorial districts. Their main objective is to work together in ord to create reliable projects. These projects intend to support local or regional development or to provide different public services. So, urban agglomerations are defined by this law as being intercomunitary development associations. They are based on a partnership between the municipality (other than those stipulated at the point j) and the towns, together with the rural and urban localities standing on their influence.

The ?metropolitan area? is an innovator term introduced by this law. This is also an intercomunitary development association, but it is based on a partnership between the Romanian capital or the first rank municipalities and the administrative- territorial districts standing in the nearby area.

We also presented in the article the main features of the intercomunitary development associations. They are defined as being private law legal subjects, but this legislative option may arouse different opinions. In ord to clarify the legal status of this right, the article also contains explanations regarding the legal subjects that can exercise the association right stipulated by the Law number 215 from 2001. It is also emphasized the specific way of exercising this right. Moreover, we presented in the second section all the forms of co-operation and association between the administrative- territorial districts stipulated by the Law number 215 from 2001, taking into consideration what was completed or modified by the Law number 286 from 2006. For each form of co-operation or association mentioned it is presented the legal procedure to be followed in ord to establish them. As for the management of these intercomunitary development associations, the law stipulates that the one in charge with this aspect is an administrative board of directors, in which the representatives of the administrative- territorial districts take the responsibility of guiding the activity. The members of this administrative board of directors are appointed by the Town Council or by the Regional Council, following the recommendation made by the mayor, or by the President of The Town Council or by the members of The Town Council or of The Regional Council.

The last section is entitled ?Conclusions?. Here we analyze the possible consequences of the legislative modifications mentioned and their legal importance. It is also emphasized the necessity of completing the legislative gaps in ord to provide maximum efficiency for these stipulations.

Prof.univ.dr. Ioan Alexandru
Scoala Nationala de Studii Politice si Administrative, Bucuresti

Considerations regarding the need for modernizing the administration

In my intervention, I shall limit myself to discussing several ideas about the need for modernizing the public administration in Romania, not as a purpose in itself, but as a condition for a better functioning and for an increase of its efficiency. In the same ord, we must say, first and for most, that the democratic changes should be viewed as a step in a much larger process which aims at modernizing the society. Therefore, the evolution of a society based upon a democratic basis, upon democratization as purpose in itself, by imitating procedures and forms with no foundation, is limited because, if certain terms are not fulfilled, at any given time one could reach instability or even demise.

As long as on political level the rules of democracy are changed, the administration cannot function fully democratically.

As long as we witness to a ?personalization of the power? and to attempts to establish an ?elective autocracy? we cannot make further progress into the democratization and the modernization of the administration.

We state, without any risk of being wrong, given the notoriety of these truths, that the administration continues to be politicized and excessively centralized, which means that it is still far from being characterized as democratic and even less, as being modern.

The dichotomy between the authority and the citizen is obvious and is showed by the written and visual media on a daily basis.

We must understand that, basically, the democracy is only a step, as we have said before, in the process of the evolution, of the progress, something that becomes a desire of the people, but that still does not accomplish itself. Democracy, as well as prosperity, does not emerge by itself at a given time, just by enacting some normative acts.

Functional institutions mean a functional administration. Before having a democracy, one must have an administration capable of generating a democracy. The administrative capacity is not simple talk. There are examples of countries with good projections whose development had been undermined by rapacious leaders, ethnical conflicts or other purely political factors that have made it impossible the setting up of an administration capable enough to manage the progress and the democratization.

I think that before we can dream of performance, we should set ourselves to enter into regularity.

The first sign of the beginning of the modernization of the Romanian administration might be the entering into regularity.
What do I comprehend by regularity?

First, it is the strict consideration of the law. I shall invoke only two fundamental aspects, determined by the modernization of the administration, stated by the law and largely ignored in our political ? administrative practice.

They are the excessive politicization of the public administration and the maintaining of the administrative centralism.

Prof.univ.dr. Cristian Ionescu
Universitatea Crestina Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucuresti

Some reflections about article 72 of the Constitution of Romania 
This study is a part of a commentary series on the Constitution of Romania, which is to be issued by the C.H. Beck Publishing House. The author intends to analyse the content of Article 72 of the Constitution with respect to parliamentary immunity and to give prominence to its defining characteristics. The study stresses that the role of the protection measures established under Article 72 of the Constitution is to guarantee a full freedom of action of the deputies and senators in the exercise of the mandate the electors gave them and, at the same time, to guard them from hypothetical interferences, threats, intimidations from the executive power and even from the electors, political parties that nominated them candidates, or from other governmental and non-governmental bodies.

The author points out parliamentary immunity covers the votes and political opinions expressed during the mandate exercise. As regards the concept of ?public opinion?, the author considers it could be materialized mainly through taking the floor at the plenary sittings of the legislative houses or within the parliamentary committees on the issues to be examined by them, through political statements, interpellations, parliamentary inquiries, including through signing certain documents (motions, motions of no confidence) to be debated according to the parliamentary rules. The essential condition is that the political opinions expressed by a deputy or a senator be closely related with the actual exercise of the parliamentary mandate.

Prof. Natalie Droin
Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon
Traducere: dr. radu Pasalega

Le d?lit de contestation de l?existence de crimes contre l?humanit?: un d?lit d?opinion?

La libert? d?opinion pr?sente une particularit? : elle est le fondement meme du r?gime d?mocratique. Ainsi, en d?mocratie, toutes les opinions doivent pouvoir etre discut?es. La loi ne peut imposer un point de vue et prohiber l?expression d?avis diff?rents. L?Etat doit accepter les conceptions de tous les citoyens et imposer ce respect tant aux organes publics qu?a l?ensemble de la population. A ce titre, le d?lit d?opinion qui consiste litt?ralement en l?incrimination de l?expression d?une opinion pour ce qu?elle est doit etre prohib?. Nous choisissons de nous concentrer sur un seul d?lit nouvellement cr?? en droit fran?ais afin de d?terminer s?il peut etre assimil? a un d?lit d?opinion, auquel cas, bien entendu, cette incrimination ne serait pas conforme aux principes de l?Etat lib?ral: le d?lit de contestation de l?existence de crimes contre l?humanit? cr?? par la loi dite Gayssot le 13 juillet 1990. La loi a fait l?objet de vives discussions lors de son adoption au Parlement entre partisans et opposants et meme apres son adoption par la doctrine qui lui reproche, entre autres, de r?tablir le d?lit d?opinion. Malgr? toutes ces querelles lors de sa discussion, la loi Gayssot n?a pas ?t? d?f?r?e au Conseil constitutionnel. La plupart des commentateurs s?interroge sur la qualification a donner a la contestation de l?existence d?un crime contre l?humanit? : est-ce la n?gation d?un fait ou une opinion ? Lorsque le choix se porte sur la qualification d?opinion, ils concluent in?vitablement a l?existence d?un d?lit d?opinion. Toutefois ce raisonnement est r?ducteur. Il n?est pas si simple de distinguer une opinion d?un fait car bien souvent l?opinion s?appuie sur des faits. La contestation de l?existence de crimes contre l?humanit? semble etre davantage qu?une opinion, un d?lit, parce qu?elle porte en elle-meme atteinte au principe de dignit? humaine et  trouble l?ordre public.

Dr. Pierre Bauby

Universitatea din Paris

L?europ?anisation des services publics

La d?finition et l?organisation des ? services publics ? se sont faite dans le cadre de la construction de chaque Etat, dans son histoire longue, en relation avec ses traditions, son organisation, ses institutions. Existent ainsi en Europe toute une s?rie de diversit?s, en meme temps qu?une profonde unit?.

Jusqu?en 1986, chaque Etat europ?en est rest? comp?tent pour d?finir, organiser, financer ses services publics. Mais l?Acte unique de 1986 a engag? une europ?anisation des services d?int?ret ?conomique g?n?ral, qui a pris la forme d?un processus de lib?ralisation consistant a introduire de la concurrence afin de casser les frontieres et d?am?liorer l?efficacit? de services souvent peu performants

Pour autant, la logique de lib?ralisation est porteuse d?une s?rie de polarisations ?conomique, sociale, territoriale, temporelle, financiere. Dans ces conditions, les regles europ?ennes consistent a mettre en oeuvre une lib?ralisation ma?tris?e, organis?e, r?gul?e, dont cet article d?crit les ?tapes et le contenu, en meme temps que les enjeux futurs, en particulier en matiere de subsidiarit?, de r?gulation et d??valuation.

Virgil Panduru
Subprefect al Judetului Olt

The Romanian Integration into the European Union,
the foundation of a new institutionalized - administrative architecture

Romania?s accession to the European Union on 1st January 2007 represents, undoubtely, a historical moment, a result of a long process at which the entire romanian people, all the state?s authorities and institutions have contributed.

There has been certified the existence of the economic criterion of building, a functioning market economy, an appropriate electoral system capable to guarantee free and fair elections and capable to ?ensure? the juridical capacity.

This change within the Romanian society could not leave aside the public administration or the necessity to introduce an european dimension according to the respective administrative area, which is characterized by: transparence, predictability, efficiency and responsibility.

The reform within the public administration implies substantial transformations in the field beginning with its major components not only at the local public administration level, but also at the central level and concerning the public services as well.

The legislative framework, as a whole, must ensure implementation and must be continued.

It has the following main priorities:
-   decentralization and deconcentration;
-     strengthening the local administrative and financial home rule;
-     fostering the public politics;
-     the public status;
-     the structural funds absorption.

The political class must express and proclaim its will according to intermediate administrative levels that apply to Romania, to the actual system which is structured on three levels: the basis, the intermediate level and the national one, being capable to ensure a high level of decentralization and social-economical cohesion.

The regional-administrative architecture must be redefined in connection to the following forms of organization: commune, town, county, region, thus creating, in the same time, the specific public authorities and institution and the legislative framework.

The regional-administrative organization is essential for the means in which decentralization and deconcentration, structural funds absorption, local autonomy and public status take place, creating the specific frame and the objective criterion for all these.

From this new regional-administrative structure, the judiciary system applicable to all the local authorities must be outlined not forgetting the constitutional limits and the local autonomy.

In the present, the constitutional limits do not allow us to include the region within the regional-administrative forms, thus not only article 3, letter 3 from Constitution is to be revised, but also defining the regional authorities and their jurisdiction and modifying the organic laws which contain applicable provisions in the field: Law no. 215/2001 concerning the local public administration, Law no.108/2004 concerning the local public finances, Law no. 96 /2003/concerning the regional frame regulations, Law no. 315/2004 concerning the regional development in Romania.

The French model may be taken in consideration, which does not establish, by Constitution, the region as the territorial form of organization, but it allows their confinement through the law.

This has been realized in Romania too through the Law no. 315/2004, but remained in an incipient phase.

The reform must be continued and even accelerated at all levels, the Romanian?s accession to the European Union can in no circumstances bring all the benefits without a unique strategical vision which enlightens the institutional devices upon a well structured, homogeneous territory, a territory capable to ensure resourses and support the process generated by the european commitment complexity.

Conf. univ. dr. Elena Mihaela FODOR
Universitatea Crestina Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucuresti,

Protecting the general interest in the context of the externalization
of public services

Entrusting certain activities traditionally performed inside a company to third parties is known both in private and public sectors. History shows that externalization of public services was performed by administration since the roman administration up to our days. If in the private sector externalization of certain elements from an activity corresponds to a strategy based on economic laws, in the public sector there are other elements that may influence the conclusions in building a strategy. Although public enterprises do not differ very much from the private ones, their institutional nature makes a difference regarding the aims they focus upon. These aims may not be evaluated with the usual economic or financial instruments like income and profit. In the public sector there are often social aims without a measurable economic value. Thus, the reference point changes from attaining a certain profit to the degree of fulfillment of a social aim.

In the French law, the notion of public service has developed in tight connection with the public power, through judicial decisions at the beginning of the 20th century. Through the Blanco decision the notion of public service was consecrated, and through the decisions Terrier and Th?rond the criteria of identification for the public service were established: the object of the activity is the fulfillment of a general interest and the juridical regime is that of the public law (administrative law). One of the most common ways of externalization of public service, well developed by the French law is the concession. In the European Community law the notion of ?public service? was ignored for some time and the monopolist approach of French public operators such as EDF, Air France or Francetelecom was criticized. But, during the 90?s the European Community approach grew closer to the French concept on public service, especially through the jurisprudence of The European Court of Justice. Recent studies tried to evaluate if privatization in the electricity and gas field reached the target of a lower cost for the consumer and if the regulations can ensure the continuity of the service.

The last part of the article is evaluating the new legislation on concession of public services and energy, especially in comparison with similar French legislation, in ord to determine if the general interest is well protected.

Prof. univ. dr. Genoveva VRABIE
Universitatea Mihail Kogalniceanu, Iasi

Une possible r?vision de la Constitution. R?gime polituque parlamentaire en Roumanie postd?dembriste ?

L'auteur prend comme point de d?part les discussions actuelles entre le Pr?sident de la Roumanie et d'autres autorit?s, surtout le Premier-ministre et les propositions concernant la r?vision constitutionnelle pour argumenter un point de vue sur l'am?nagement des pouvoirs dans notre pays. Faisant une comparaison avec d'autres Etats et d'autres constitutions, celle-ci propose la r?vision de la loi fondamentale dans deux directions: 1) L'octroi des pouvoirs r?els au Pr?sident de la Roumanie en ce qui concerne la dissolution du Parlement et la possibilit? de d?clancher un r?f?rendum l?gislatif et 2) L'adoption des regles d?taill?es et strictes concernant les rapports entre le "chef d'Etat" et les deux principales autorit?s avec lesquelles il collabore, c'est-a-dire avec  le Premier-ministre et le Parlement.

Mais l'auteur attire l'attention sur le fait que la r?vision ne doit etre h?t?e, en soutenant comme conclusion que le r?gime politique articul? aujourd'hui par la Constitution ? un r?gime mixte ? peut offrir le cadre d'un gouvernement stable si le jeu politique se d?roule dans les frontieres ?tablies par des principes constitutionnelles, des principes formul?s clairement sans ?quivoque par la loi fondamentale.

. Dan Claudiu Danisor
. Sonia Draghici
Universitatea din Craiova

Commentaire sur la D?cision 148/2007 de la Cour Constitutionnelle

Dans la cause qui a occasionn? la D?cision 148/2007, la Cour Constitutionnelle a ?t? saisie pour v?rifier la constitutionnalit? de la disposition de l?art. 157 alinea 2 du Reglement du S?nat. Mais la saisine de la Cour a ?t? faite comme suite a l?adoption par le S?nat d?une motion simple par laquelle on demandait la r?vocation du Ministre de la Justice. Cette situation, a c?t? de la r?f?rence r?p?t?e de la Cour aux situations ou on peut d?mettre les ministres et a la d?limitation des comp?tences des Chambres du Parlement par la pr?cision des effets de la motion, souleve le probleme de la distinction entre la solution des conflits juridiques de nature constitutionnelle et la v?rification de la constitutionnalit? des Reglements des Chambres. En rapportant les consid?rants de la D?cision aux ?l?ments d?finitoires de la notion de conflit juridique de nature constitutionnelle, ?tablis par la Cour dans ses d?cisions no 53-2005 et 435-2006, on constate que la D?cision 148/2007 respecte tous les ?l?ments sp?cifiques de la comp?tence pr?vue a l?art. 146 lettre e de la Constitution. Par l?indication des conditions ou la disposition contest?e reste constitutionnelle, la Cour Constitutionnelle donne une d?cision interpr?tative, en violant ainsi les dispositions de l?art. 2 alinea 3 de la Loi 47/1992. De plus, la Cour se prononce aussi sur les questions politiques qui puissent etre attach?es aux motions simples adopt?es par les Chambres, en d?passant ainsi aussi bien le cadre impos? par le contr?le de constitutionnalit? des Reglements des Chambres que celui impos? par la solution des conflits juridiques de nature constitutionnelle. Dans des conditions telles, les effets de la D?cision ne sont pas clairs.

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